As smart things collect huge amount of sensor data, compute and storage resources are required to analyze, store, and process this data. The most common compute and storage resources are cloud based because the cloud offers massive data handling, scalability, and flexibility. But this will not be sufficient to meet the requirements of many IoT applications because of the following reasons . Chemical sensors are used to detect chemical and biochemical substances. These sensors consist of a recognition element and a transducer.
All the electronic components are embedded in these rubbery structures. Just like a tattoo, these patches can be applied on the skin as shown in Figure 5. One of the most common applications of such patches is to monitor blood pressure. The Internet of Things can be really beneficial for health care applications. We can use sensors, which can measure and monitor various medical parameters in the human body .
Additionally, it supports 79 data channels and a data rate of 1 million symbols/s, whereas, BLE supports 40 channels with 2 MHz channel bandwidth and 1 million symbols/s data rate. BLE supports low duty cycle requirements as its packet size is small and the time taken to transmit the smallest packet is as small as 80s. The BLE protocol stack supports IP based communication also. An experiment conducted by Siekkinen et al. recorded the number of bytes transferred per Joule to show that BLE consumes far less energy as compared to competing protocols such as Zigbee.
Hydra also provides semantic interoperability using semantic web technologies. Like other WiFi devices, devices supporting WiFi HaLow also support IP connectivity, which is important for IoT applications. Let us look at the specifications of the IEEE 802.11ah standard . This standard was developed to deal with wireless sensor network scenarios, where devices are energy constrained and require relatively long range communication.
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Because of the relatively lower frequency, the range is longer since higher frequency waves suffer from higher attenuation. We can extend the range by lowering the frequency further; however, the data rate will also be lower and thus the tradeoff is not justified. IEEE 802.11ah is also designed to support large star shaped networks, where a lot of stations are connected to a single access point. In classic Bluetooth, the connection is on all the time even if no data transfer is going on.
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The energy efficiency of BLE is 2.5 times better than Zigbee. The application layer is responsible for data formatting and presentation. The application layer in the Internet is typically based on HTTP. However, HTTP is not suitable in resource constrained environments because it is fairly verbose in nature and thus incurs a large parsing overhead. Many alternate protocols have been developed for IoT environments such as CoAP and MQTT .
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The electronic nose (e-nose) and electronic tongue (e-tongue) are technologies that can be used to sense chemicals on the basis of odor and taste, respectively . The e-nose and e-tongue consist of an array of chemical sensors coupled with advance pattern recognition software. The sensors inside the e-nose and e-tongue produce complex data, which is then analyzed through pattern recognition to identify the stimulus. Another novel IoT device, which has a lot of promise are monitoring patches that are pasted on the skin. These patches are supposed to be worn by the patient for a few days to monitor a vital health parameter continuously .